National Institute of Standards and Technology  

While the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) does not have a large program specifically focused on ocean acidification, NIST provides a number of measurement and calibration capabilities that support the efforts of other agencies (e.g., NASA, NOAA) and the broader research community to monitor ocean changes, including acidification. For example, NIST provides a number of advanced satellite calibration standards, including color standards and sensor calibrations to support the Marine Optical Buoy program.  Additionally, NIST, through the Hollings Marine Laboratory in Charleston, South Carolina, runs the Marine Environmental Specimen Bank, which cryogenically banks well-documented environmental specimens collected as part of other agency marine research and monitoring programs.  In 2010, NIST expanded this effort through the establishment of the NIST U.S. Pacific Islands Program to help address environmental and ecological questions that are unique to the region.  This program includes collaboration with NOAA; other Federal, state, local, and regional agencies; private organization; universities; and research institutes to establish a biorepository in the region and to advance measurement capabilities for environmental health research.  A major element of this effort relevant to ocean acidification is a new coral reef banking program known as the Archive of Coral Ecosystem Specimens.  The new coral reef banking program will create a formal repository of calcium carbonate skeletons and tissues from corals and other reef taxa to serve as a resource for long-term monitoring and research.  Localized stressors, such as impaired water quality, and global climate stressors, such as thermal stress and ocean acidification, impact elemental/isotopic signatures and biomarkers in carbonate skeletons and tissues that will be measured and archived to record past, present, and future environmental conditions and the associated organismal responses.