Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Influence of Winter Subsurface on the Following Summer Variability in Northern California Current System

Citation: Ray, S., Bond, N., Siedlecki, S., & Hermann, A. J. (2022). Influence of winter subsurface on the following summer variability in Northern California Current System. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 127, e2022JC018577.

Temperature variations in the North and tropical Pacific contribute to the predictability of temperatures along the 26.4σ isopycnal layer off the Northern California Current System (N-CCS). Monthly temperature variations at this depth in the N-CCS are related to a linear combination of factors, including North Pacific spice anomalies, and the PDO and ENSO climate indices. However, the mechanisms for seasonal predictability of subsurface temperatures, are not well explored. While wind and buoyancy driven deep winter mixing influence subsurface temperatures during the following summer in the deep basin of the North Pacific, a coupled atmosphere-ocean reanalysis (the CFSR) reveals that winter prior surface temperatures explain only 25% of the summer subsurface temperatures in the N-CCS. A heat budget of the intermediate layer between a temporally varying mixed layer and the 26.4σ level is diagnosed here to explore the possible role of oceanic advection in explaining the remaining variance. Warmer waters from the south near the coast drive temperature changes in ENSO-neutral winters, thereby preconditioning temperatures for the following summer. During ENSO winters, isopycnal variations associated with propagating coastal kelvin waves and other sources of heaving, along with anomalous alongshore currents, drive convergence/divergence of the advective fluxes, thereby reducing the local memory of the winter subsurface temperatures. Variations in winter advection could account for almost 36% of the summer subsurface temperature variability in the N-CCS; this exceeds the portion explained by the heat fluxes associated with deep winter mixing.

Scroll to Top


The NOAA Ocean Acidification Program (OAP) works to prepare society to adapt to the consequences of ocean acidification and conserve marine ecosystems as acidification occurs. Learn more about the human connections and adaptation strategies from these efforts.

Adaptation approaches fostered by the OAP include:


Using models and research to understand the sensitivity of organisms and ecosystems to ocean acidification to make predictions about the future, allowing communities and industries to prepare


Using these models and predictions as tools to facilitate management strategies that will protect marine resources and communities from future changes


Developing innovative tools to help monitor ocean acidification and mitigate changing ocean chemistry locally


On the Road

Drive fuel-efficient vehicles or choose public transportation. Choose your bike or walk! Don't sit idle for more than 30 seconds. Keep your tires properly inflated.

With your Food Choices

Eat local- this helps cut down on production and transport! Reduce your meat and dairy. Compost to avoid food waste ending up in the landfill

With your Food Choices

Make energy-efficient choices for your appliances and lighting. Heat and cool efficiently! Change your air filters and program your thermostat, seal and insulate your home, and support clean energy sources

By Reducing Coastal Acidification

Reduce your use of fertilizers, Improve sewage treatment and run off, and Protect and restore coastal habitats

Previous slide
Next slide


You've taken the first step to learn more about ocean acidification - why not spread this knowledge to your community?

Every community has their unique culture, economy and ecology and what’s at stake from ocean acidification may be different depending on where you live.  As a community member, you can take a larger role in educating the public about ocean acidification. Creating awareness is the first step to taking action.  As communities gain traction, neighboring regions that share marine resources can build larger coalitions to address ocean acidification.  Here are some ideas to get started:

  1. Work with informal educators, such as aquarium outreach programs and local non-profits, to teach the public about ocean acidification. Visit our Education & Outreach page to find the newest tools!
  2. Participate in habitat restoration efforts to restore habitats that help mitigate the effects of coastal acidification
  3. Facilitate conversations with local businesses that might be affected by ocean acidification, building a plan for the future.
  4. Partner with local community efforts to mitigate the driver behind ocean acidification  – excess CO2 – such as community supported agriculture, bike & car shares and other public transportation options.
  5. Contact your regional Coastal Acidification Network (CAN) to learn how OA is affecting your region and more ideas about how you can get involved in your community
       More for Taking Community Action