Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Nepheloid layers in the deep Gulf of Mexico

Citation: Wilford D. Gardner, Mary Jo Richardson, Alexey V. Mishonov, Daniel A. Bean, Juan Carlos Herguera, Nepheloid layers in the deep Gulf of Mexico, Marine Geology, Volume 454, 2022, 106950, ISSN 0025-3227,

The first measurements of bottom nepheloid layers in the central and southern deep waters of the Gulf of Mexico west of the Yucatan peninsula were made during the three summers of 2015–2017. Particulate matter concentrations (PM) were estimated from optical profiles of beam attenuation due to particles (cp). Near-bottom maps and vertical sections of cp and PM converted from cp show evidence of sediment resuspension, possibly linked with topographic Rossby waves, loop current eddies, or eddy-topography interactions. Additional cp profiles were made along cross-slope transects around the entire Gulf of Mexico, including across the Yucatan Channel and Straits of Florida in 2017. Near-bottom PM concentrations were barely elevated in the deep Yucatan Channel and Straits of Florida at that time, except in about the surface 200 m along the northern and western boundaries. Comparison was made between areas with benthic nepheloid layers and Eddy Kinetic Energy (EKE) patterns in the deep Gulf of Mexico. Regions of high EKE or strong bottom currents in the central and eastern Gulf were found over a large region of deeply eroded furrows in the seafloor previously imaged using 3-D seismic profiling and submersible observations. Few PM measurements were obtained in the high EKE areas during these expeditions, however, historical and recent sampling show very strong nepheloid layers at stations within and westward of the region of the actively eroding furrows.

Funding for the GOMECC cruises came from the NOAA Ocean Acidification Program (OAP)

Scroll to Top


The NOAA Ocean Acidification Program (OAP) works to prepare society to adapt to the consequences of ocean acidification and conserve marine ecosystems as acidification occurs. Learn more about the human connections and adaptation strategies from these efforts.

Adaptation approaches fostered by the OAP include:


Using models and research to understand the sensitivity of organisms and ecosystems to ocean acidification to make predictions about the future, allowing communities and industries to prepare


Using these models and predictions as tools to facilitate management strategies that will protect marine resources and communities from future changes


Developing innovative tools to help monitor ocean acidification and mitigate changing ocean chemistry locally


On the Road

Drive fuel-efficient vehicles or choose public transportation. Choose your bike or walk! Don't sit idle for more than 30 seconds. Keep your tires properly inflated.

With your Food Choices

Eat local- this helps cut down on production and transport! Reduce your meat and dairy. Compost to avoid food waste ending up in the landfill

With your Food Choices

Make energy-efficient choices for your appliances and lighting. Heat and cool efficiently! Change your air filters and program your thermostat, seal and insulate your home, and support clean energy sources

By Reducing Coastal Acidification

Reduce your use of fertilizers, Improve sewage treatment and run off, and Protect and restore coastal habitats

Previous slide
Next slide


You've taken the first step to learn more about ocean acidification - why not spread this knowledge to your community?

Every community has their unique culture, economy and ecology and what’s at stake from ocean acidification may be different depending on where you live.  As a community member, you can take a larger role in educating the public about ocean acidification. Creating awareness is the first step to taking action.  As communities gain traction, neighboring regions that share marine resources can build larger coalitions to address ocean acidification.  Here are some ideas to get started:

  1. Work with informal educators, such as aquarium outreach programs and local non-profits, to teach the public about ocean acidification. Visit our Education & Outreach page to find the newest tools!
  2. Participate in habitat restoration efforts to restore habitats that help mitigate the effects of coastal acidification
  3. Facilitate conversations with local businesses that might be affected by ocean acidification, building a plan for the future.
  4. Partner with local community efforts to mitigate the driver behind ocean acidification  – excess CO2 – such as community supported agriculture, bike & car shares and other public transportation options.
  5. Contact your regional Coastal Acidification Network (CAN) to learn how OA is affecting your region and more ideas about how you can get involved in your community
       More for Taking Community Action