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Quantifying Net Community Production and Calcification at Station ALOHA Near Hawai’i: Insights and Limitations From a Dual Tracer Carbon Budget Approach

Citation: Knor, L. A. C. M., Sabine, C. L., Sutton, A. J., White, A. E., Potemra, J., & Weller, R. A. (2023). Quantifying net community production and calcification at station ALOHA near Hawai’i: Insights and limitations from a dual tracer carbon budget approach. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 37, e2022GB007672.

A budget approach is used to disentangle drivers of the seasonal mixed layer carbon cycle at Station ALOHA (A Long-term Oligotrophic Habitat Assessment) in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG). The budget utilizes data from the WHOTS (Woods Hole—Hawaii Ocean Time-series Site) mooring, and the ship-based Hawai’i Ocean Time-series (HOT) in the NPSG, a region of significant oceanic carbon uptake. Parsing the carbon variations into process components allows an assessment of both the proportional contributions of mixed layer carbon drivers and the seasonal interplay of drawdown and supply from different processes. Annual net community production reported here is at the lower end of previously published data, while net community calcification estimates are 4- to 7-fold higher than available sediment trap data, the only other estimate of calcium carbonate export at this location. Although the observed seasonal cycle in dissolved inorganic carbon in the NPSG has a relatively small amplitude, larger fluxes offset each other over an average year. Major supply comes from physical transport, especially lateral eddy transport throughout the year and entrainment in the winter, offset by biological carbon uptake in the spring. Gas exchange plays a smaller role, supplying carbon to the surface ocean between Dec-May and outgassing in Jul-Oct. Evaporation-precipitation (E-P) is variable with precipitation prevailing in the first half and evaporation in the second half of the year. The observed total alkalinity signal is largely governed by E-P with a somewhat stronger net calcification signal in the wintertime.

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The NOAA Ocean Acidification Program (OAP) works to prepare society to adapt to the consequences of ocean acidification and conserve marine ecosystems as acidification occurs. Learn more about the human connections and adaptation strategies from these efforts.

Adaptation approaches fostered by the OAP include:


Using models and research to understand the sensitivity of organisms and ecosystems to ocean acidification to make predictions about the future, allowing communities and industries to prepare


Using these models and predictions as tools to facilitate management strategies that will protect marine resources and communities from future changes


Developing innovative tools to help monitor ocean acidification and mitigate changing ocean chemistry locally


On the Road

Drive fuel-efficient vehicles or choose public transportation. Choose your bike or walk! Don't sit idle for more than 30 seconds. Keep your tires properly inflated.

With your Food Choices

Eat local- this helps cut down on production and transport! Reduce your meat and dairy. Compost to avoid food waste ending up in the landfill

With your Food Choices

Make energy-efficient choices for your appliances and lighting. Heat and cool efficiently! Change your air filters and program your thermostat, seal and insulate your home, and support clean energy sources

By Reducing Coastal Acidification

Reduce your use of fertilizers, Improve sewage treatment and run off, and Protect and restore coastal habitats

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You've taken the first step to learn more about ocean acidification - why not spread this knowledge to your community?

Every community has their unique culture, economy and ecology and what’s at stake from ocean acidification may be different depending on where you live.  As a community member, you can take a larger role in educating the public about ocean acidification. Creating awareness is the first step to taking action.  As communities gain traction, neighboring regions that share marine resources can build larger coalitions to address ocean acidification.  Here are some ideas to get started:

  1. Work with informal educators, such as aquarium outreach programs and local non-profits, to teach the public about ocean acidification. Visit our Education & Outreach page to find the newest tools!
  2. Participate in habitat restoration efforts to restore habitats that help mitigate the effects of coastal acidification
  3. Facilitate conversations with local businesses that might be affected by ocean acidification, building a plan for the future.
  4. Partner with local community efforts to mitigate the driver behind ocean acidification  – excess CO2 – such as community supported agriculture, bike & car shares and other public transportation options.
  5. Contact your regional Coastal Acidification Network (CAN) to learn how OA is affecting your region and more ideas about how you can get involved in your community
       More for Taking Community Action