Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

NOAA’s Ocean Acidification Program Research Region

Region: Florida Keys and Caribbean

Related Posts

See news related to this Research Region

A mapped dataset of surface ocean acidification indicators in large marine ecosystems of the United States

Mapped monthly data products of surface ocean acidification indicators from 1998 to 2022 on a 0.25° by 0.25° spatial grid have been developed for eleven U.S. large marine ecosystems (LMEs). The data products were constructed using observations from the Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas, co-located surface ocean properties, and two types of machine learning algorithms: Gaussian mixture

Read More >

Advancing best practices for assessing trends of ocean acidification time series

Assessing the status of ocean acidification across ocean and coastal waters requires standardized procedures at all levels of data collection, dissemination, and analysis. Standardized procedures for assuring quality and accessibility of ocean carbonate chemistry data are largely established, but a common set of best practices for ocean acidification trend analysis is needed to enable global

Read More >

Strategy for NOAA Carbon Dioxide Removal (CDR) Research: A White Paper documenting a potential NOAA CDR Science Strategy as an element of NOAA’s Climate Interventions Portfolio

This document is intended to serve as a reference for exploration of carbon removal research at NOAA. The report was drafted by authors from across NOAA to provide strategic direction to relevant labs and programs in multiple line offices. The goal has been to assemble as much information as possible in order to facilitate conversations

Read More >

Implications of salinity normalization of seawater total alkalinity in coral reef metabolism studies

Salinity normalization of total alkalinity (TA) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) data is commonly used to account for conservative mixing processes when inferring net metabolic modification of seawater by coral reefs. Salinity (S), TA, and DIC can be accurately and precisely measured, but salinity normalization of TA (nTA) and DIC (nDIC) can generate considerable and

Read More >

Coral Reef Carbonate Chemistry Reveals Interannual, Seasonal, and Spatial Impacts on Ocean Acidification Off Florida

Ocean acidification (OA) threatens coral reef persistence by decreasing calcification and accelerating the dissolution of reef frameworks. The carbonate chemistry of coastal areas where many reefs exist is strongly influenced by the metabolic activity of the underlying benthic community, contributing to high spatiotemporal variability. While characterizing this variability is difficult, it has important implications for

Read More >

Restoration and coral adaptation delay, but do not prevent, climate-driven reef framework erosion of an inshore site in the Florida Keys

For reef framework to persist, calcium carbonate production by corals and other calcifiers needs to outpace loss due to physical, chemical, and biological erosion. This balance is both delicate and dynamic and is currently threatened by the effects of ocean warming and acidification. Although the protection and recovery of ecosystem functions are at the center

Read More >

Emerging Applications of Longstanding Autonomous Ocean Carbon Observations

For over two decades, NOAA’s Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL) has been developing and deploying autonomous ocean carbon measurement technologies. PMEL currently maintains a network of air-sea CO2 and ocean acidification time-series measurements on 33 surface buoys, including the world’s longest record of air-sea CO2 measured from a buoy. These sites are located in every

Read More >
A vibrant coral reef is the background for the United States Ocean Acidification Action Plan, released December 10, 2023 at COP28

U. S. Ocean Acidification Action Plan Released

A Roadmap for the other National Ocean Acidification Action Plans The United States released the U.S. Ocean Acidification (OA) Action Plan during the United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP28) on December 10, 2023. This side event was co-hosted by NOAA Ocean Acidification Program, U.S. Department of State, and International Alliance to Combat Ocean Acidification (‘OA

Read More >

Related Projects

See our funded projects for this Focus Area

Calm sea with mountains on horizon and expansive sky in Ketchikan, Alaska. Credit: Phil Price, Flickr

Why we care:Alaskan Native communities rely on healthy marine ecosystems for work, sustenance and their way of life. Ocean acidification has documented impacts to marine life and these communities. An..

Spruce Island in the Kodiak region of Alaska. Bull kelp at water's surface with island in the background. Ocean acidification monitoring in this region helps prepare Kodiak Tribes for the impacts of ocean change. Credit: NOAA

Why we care:Alaskan Native communities rely on healthy marine ecosystems for work, sustenance and their way of life. Ocean acidification has documented impacts to marine life and these communities. Community..

Fisherman pulling up sugar kelp. Seaweed cultivation may be one avenue for marine carbon dioxide removal and mitigating ocean acidification. Credit: GreenWave/Ron Gautreau.

Award amount: $1,451,575Duration: 3 yearsFunding agency: NOAA Ocean Acidification Program (OAP), National Oceanographic Partnership Program (NOPP) Why we care Growing seaweed in the ocean could be one way to alleviate some..

Plankton bloom seen from space. Credit: NASA

Why we care Iron is a critical limiting nutrient for phytoplankton in the ocean. Iron fertilization adds this limiting nutrient to promote phytoplankton blooms as a way to take up..

Breaking wave in sunlight. Credit: NOAA Ocean Service

Why we care Ocean alkalinity enhancement has the potential to capture carbon and mitigate ocean acidification. While ocean alkalinity enhancement is a promising approach for removing carbon from the atmosphere,..

Terrestrial liming at golf courses serve as testbeds for this method for carbon capture and mitigating acidification. Credit: Your Golf Travel (Creative Commons)

Why we care Terrestrial liming, or the addition of a basic (alkaline) material like calcium carbonate to crops and lawns is a common agricultural soil treatment. When applied on land..

Related Publications

See publications produced by our funded projects for this Focus Area

Citation: Tobias Schwoerer, Kevin Berry, Darcy G. Dugan, David C. Finnoff, Molly Mayo, Jan Ohlberger, Eric J. Ward, Fish or not fish—fisheries participation and harvest diversification under economic and ecological change, Marine Policy, Volume 157, 2023, 105833, ISSN 0308-597X,
Citation: Sharp, J.D., Jiang, LQ., Carter, B.R. et al. A mapped dataset of surface ocean acidification indicators in large marine ecosystems of the United States. Sci Data 11, 715 (2024).
Citation: Barkley HC, Oliver TA, Halperin AA, Pomeroy NV, Smith JN, Weible RM, Young CW, Couch CS, Brainard RE and Samson JC (2022) Coral reef carbonate accretion rates track stable gradients in seawater carbonate chemistry across the U.S. Pacific Islands. Front. Mar. Sci. 9:991685. doi: 10.3389/fmars.2022.991685
Scroll to Top


The NOAA Ocean Acidification Program (OAP) works to prepare society to adapt to the consequences of ocean acidification and conserve marine ecosystems as acidification occurs. Learn more about the human connections and adaptation strategies from these efforts.

Adaptation approaches fostered by the OAP include:


Using models and research to understand the sensitivity of organisms and ecosystems to ocean acidification to make predictions about the future, allowing communities and industries to prepare


Using these models and predictions as tools to facilitate management strategies that will protect marine resources and communities from future changes


Developing innovative tools to help monitor ocean acidification and mitigate changing ocean chemistry locally


On the Road

Drive fuel-efficient vehicles or choose public transportation. Choose your bike or walk! Don't sit idle for more than 30 seconds. Keep your tires properly inflated.

With your Food Choices

Eat local- this helps cut down on production and transport! Reduce your meat and dairy. Compost to avoid food waste ending up in the landfill

With your Food Choices

Make energy-efficient choices for your appliances and lighting. Heat and cool efficiently! Change your air filters and program your thermostat, seal and insulate your home, and support clean energy sources

By Reducing Coastal Acidification

Reduce your use of fertilizers, Improve sewage treatment and run off, and Protect and restore coastal habitats

Previous slide
Next slide


You've taken the first step to learn more about ocean acidification - why not spread this knowledge to your community?

Every community has their unique culture, economy and ecology and what’s at stake from ocean acidification may be different depending on where you live.  As a community member, you can take a larger role in educating the public about ocean acidification. Creating awareness is the first step to taking action.  As communities gain traction, neighboring regions that share marine resources can build larger coalitions to address ocean acidification.  Here are some ideas to get started:

  1. Work with informal educators, such as aquarium outreach programs and local non-profits, to teach the public about ocean acidification. Visit our Education & Outreach page to find the newest tools!
  2. Participate in habitat restoration efforts to restore habitats that help mitigate the effects of coastal acidification
  3. Facilitate conversations with local businesses that might be affected by ocean acidification, building a plan for the future.
  4. Partner with local community efforts to mitigate the driver behind ocean acidification  – excess CO2 – such as community supported agriculture, bike & car shares and other public transportation options.
  5. Contact your regional Coastal Acidification Network (CAN) to learn how OA is affecting your region and more ideas about how you can get involved in your community
       More for Taking Community Action